While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global inventory to be held every five years, the framework aims to provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish between the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement includes provisions to improve the capacity building framework.  The agreement recognises the different circumstances of some countries and notes in particular that the technical expert review for each country takes into account that country`s specific reporting capacity.  The agreement also develops an initiative to enhance transparency to help developing countries put in place the institutions and processes necessary to comply with the transparency framework.  At the start of negotiations in November, the French Presidency underscored this approach by creating the Paris Committee, an inclusive negotiating forum, and appointing representatives of ministers representing all regions, so that all state and non-governmental actors could be appointed. To contribute to the objectives of the agreement, countries presented broad national climate change plans (national contributions, NDCs). These are not yet sufficient to meet the temperature targets, but the agreement sets out the way forward for further measures. “The links between biodiversity, climate change and human health are now well established. That is why, next month, together with the United Nations and the World Bank, we will organise a summit on biodiversity, at which we will draw up a concrete programme of action. Adaptation issues were the subject of increased attention during the formation of the Paris Agreement. Long-term collective adjustment targets are included in the agreement and countries are accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the agreement with reduction.  Adjustment targets focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.  Ultimately, all parties recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will attempt to answer questions relating to the classification, management and sharing of responsibilities in the event of loss.
 According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), temperatures would likely have risen by 3.2°C by the end of the twenty-first century, based solely on the current climate commitments of the Paris Agreement. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5°C, annual emissions must be below 25 gigatonnes (Gt) by 2030. With the current november 2019 commitments, emissions will be 56 Gt of CO2e by 2030, twice as much as the environmental target. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5°C, it is necessary to reduce global annual emissions by 7.6% per year between 2020 and 2030. The four largest emitters (China, THE US, EU27 and India) have contributed more than 55% of total emissions over the past decade, excluding emissions resulting from land-use change such as deforestation. . . .